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Heating Methods And Costs

With four distinct seasons in Bulgaria, you'll need to consider how to keep your Bulgarian property both warm and cool. Quest Bulgaria takes a look at various heating methods and the costs involved in running them.

Central heating as western Europeans know it, is still not so popular in Bulgarian owned homes. In Sofia, many are lucky enough to be on the central steam heating (incredibly efficient and cheap), in Varna most use reversible air conditioning, and in towns and villages the majority use wood-fired heating.

It is possible to have central heating powered by electric, gas or oil, but these systems are infrequently chosen.

However, before considering your heating system, the essential thing is to have very good insulation. Without this you could lose up to 60% of all your heat through your walls and roof!


Electricity prices have risen enormously over the last few years, with further price hikes expected. You should allow around 200 leva a month for winter heating of an average house. This compares with oil about 95 leva and about 55 leva using wood.

For heating water, electric is commonly used. When you are installing the boiler, make sure it is big enough for your needs. Usually 150 litres is sufficient for a family but 200 litres would be better.

Prices for electric are currently approximately 0.89 leva per kw hour. It is worth investigating "night rate electricity" as this is substantially lower and you can run many of your appliances on this cheap rate electric.

Beware, stand alone electric heaters can be expensive to run on a full time basis. Additionally, in the smaller villages there can be frequent power cuts, so ensure you have an alternative method of heating available in case of need.


The cost of oil has risen across the world and thus oil fired central is a relatively costly choice. Those living in the country usually opt for wood which is considerably cheaper. Consideration also needs to be given to access - some delivery trucks may not be able to get to your property. It takes an average of 1000 litres of oil to heat a 3 bed house, which would come to about 2400 leva for the year. The system should be cleaned and serviced annually.

On the other hand, there is a convenience to oil which you certainly do not get with wood. You should be able to get one delivery for the whole year sufficient for your needs.


Gas central heating has limited availability, being limited to the cities with mains gas. If you are lucky enough to have mains gas available to you, then this is the best option for heating. It is clean, economical and efficient.

If you are in an area without mains gas, it is possible to use gas central heating via the use of gas bottles. Apart from the space needed for the bottles and the cost of piping, there have been problems reported with faulty bottles and these systems need regular maintenance.


A bit of a luxury but well worth it when summer temperatures soar to over 30 C. Units can also be "reversed" to provide heat. Most new developments have air conditioning installed. However, many developers only instal the cheapest of units, which can be noisy and big consumers of electricity.

When considering buying air conditioners look for those which have a silent running mode to reduce noise. A high quality air conditioning unit with a heat pump for heating in winter will be around 1200 leva each. The cost of installation is approximately 120 leva.

Air conditioners should be serviced regularly to empty the filters of dust and bacteria.

Running costs will vary depending upon your needs but if you are using these units as additional heating, it will cost about 160 leva a month for an average three bedroom house. In the summer for air conditioning, allowing it on pretty much full time during the day, costs will drop to about 25 leva a month.


Many property owners these days are seeking the most environmentally friendly way to heat their home. Clearly solar energy would be high on the list.

Solar power cannot be relied on in Bulgaria for year round heating.

The cost of installation is much higher than other heating methods but it is increasing in popûlarity and the system should be cost-effective within about three years.

There are really no maintenance costs with solar energy and it becomes ‘free' energy after the initial costs have been recovered.

This may be a suitable option if you have an isolated rural property where connecting to mains electricity would be prohibitively expensive.


The majority choice. It is both cheap in Bulgaria and readily available. There is a huge choice of wood burners and you can select one which will also run several radiators. It depends upon your area, but wood this year is available at about 50 leva per cubic metre.Depending on lifestyles an average 3 bed house would need between 10 - 15 cubic metres to see you through the whole year comfortably.

Be aware, that wood is delivered in one or two metre lengths, so you will need to either cut it to suitable lengths yourself or get someone to do it for you. For eight cubic metres, it will probably cost 100 leva to get this cut and stacked.

Ask at your municipality as to where to obtain your local supplier. Whatever you do, do not go and try to collect firewood yourself in the forests with a licence. The forestry commission are very hot on this and you'll be fined.

The downside of wood is the constant work of bringing the wood in, cleaning the fire, lighting the fire, attending to it...

Open fireplaces are particularly wasteful so a better option is a wood burner with a glass front, allowing you to still see the fire and benefit from improved heat output.

A good looking wood burner with glass doors would only set you back 300 leva.