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Lesson Nine - Another past tense

Now that the Aorist is behind us, it is time to move on learn another tense of the past. Once again, I would like you not to worry too much about the name of the tense itself which won’t help you much in the end, but on the way the tense is constructed and how you can recognise it whenever you come across it whilst reading or need to use it in conversation.



Before going any further, let's have a look at the answers to the exercises of last month's issue:

Build Strength

We asked you to provide possible sentences using the Aorist, here are some possible solutions, but don’t worry if you came up with other alternatives:

1 В понеделник, бях в София на цял ден
V ponedelnik, byah v Sofia na tsyal den
I went to Sofia for the whole day on Monday

2 Във вторник, обядвахме в ресторанче
Vav vtornik, obyadvarme v restorantshe
We had lunch in a small restaurant on Tuesday

3 В сряда, видяхме приятели си
V sryada, vidyahme priateli si
We saw our friends on Wednesday

4 В четвъртък, ходихме заедно в парк
V tshetvartak, hodihme zaedno v park
We went to the park together on Thursday

5 В петък, тръгвахме за Варна
V petak, tragvahme za Varna
We left for Varna on Friday

6 В събота, запознах да работя малко пo- късно
V sabota, zapoznah da rabotya malko po kasno
I started work a bit later on Saturday

7 В неделя, закусвахме с хляб и мед
V nedelya, zakusvahme s hlyab i med
On Sunday, we had breakfast with bread and honey

We also asked you to translate the following sentences into english:

1 Запознахме да работим рано
Zapoznahme da rabotim rano
We started work early

2 В понеделник бях в София
V ponedelnik byah v Sofia
I was in Sofia on Monday

3 После това бях в Пловдив за три дена
Posle tova byah v Plovdiv za tri dena
After that I was in Plovdiv for three days

4 Един човек влезе в един хотел и попита цената на стаята
Edin tsovek vleze v edin hotel i popita tsenata na stayata
One person went into a hotel and asked for the price of the hotel

5 Какво видя вчера в Пловдив?
Kakvo vidya vtshera v Plovdiv ?
What did you see in Plovdiv yesterday?

6 Обядвахме в къщти
Obyadvahme v kashti
We had lunch at home

Make Progress

As I said earlier, it's time for you to learn another tense of the past which we will introduce as the ‘Present Perfect’. Do not try to make any comparisons with what you are used to in your own language even though you may find there are similarities … this would only bring confusion into your mind!

The Present Perfect imposes the use of "e" + neuter - ло Past Principle.

Example:Тя каза, че е минавало в 10
Tya kaza tshe e minavalo v decet
She said that it happened at 10

There are two essential components of the Present Perfect: The presence of the verb "to be" and the use of the Past Participle which will vary according to the gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and number (singular or plural).

Example:Ти играли си на 'Монополи'?
Ti igrali si na Monopoli ?
Have you played 'Monopoly'?

Keep in mind that this tense is used to express the result in the present of an event that occurred at an indefinite moment of the past. To make a long story short, we could say that you are face to face with the direct consequences of something that happened in the past without knowing for sure when it happened.

Example: Не съм ходил в Боянската църква
Ne sam hodil v Boyianskata tsarkva
I have not been to Boyana Church

Presented as they are things do not seem impossible to master, but you may experience some difficulties with word order.

Indeed, with: аз,ти,той,тя,ние,вие,те, the verb "to be" will come second.

Example: Аз съм казала
When these are not used in the sentence, it comes after the Past Participle of the verb.

I have said (once): казал съм
You have said: казал си
He/She has said: казала е
We have said: казали сме
You have said: казали сте
They have said: казали са

The aspect of the verb should also be considered in this case, but this would make things more
complicated at this stage, and we'll choose not to consider it for now.

Translate the following sentences into English:

1 Георги е чакал Калина пред театъра
Georgi e tshakal Kalina pred teatara

2 Мария е казала, че е покана е много късна
Maria e kazala tshe e pokana e mnogo kasna

3 Николина каза, че е чакала влак много дълго
Nikolina kaza tshe e tshakala vlak mnogo dalgo

4 Иво се е върнал от морето рано
Ivo se e varnal ot moreto rano

5 Каза, че му е харесала тази къща в България
Kaza tshe mu e haresala tazi kashta v Balgaria

At this stage of your apprenticeship, I have chosen to leave all the words unstressed in order to boost your confidence in putting the stress at the correct place or look up the word in the dictionary to confirm your choice.

Practice Makes Perfect

Read the small text underneath taken from a report on Bulgarian television and see how much you can understand from it:

Защо е нужен образ на България?
Zashto e nuzhen obraz na Balgaria?

Ако България иска да е туристическа страна, тя трябва да има положителния образ на желано място.
Ako Balgaria iska da e turistitsheska strana, tya triabva da ima polozhitelnia obraz na zhelano myasto.

Никой не инвестира в страна, за която нищо не знае.
Nikoy ne investira v strana, za koyato nishto ne znae.

Никой не инвестира в страна- музеен експонат.  
Nikoy ne investira v strana – muzeen eksponat.

Важно е да се покаже потенциалът на младите хора като квалифиципана работна ръка.
Vazhno e da pokazhe potentsyalat na mladite hora kato kvalifitsirana rabotna raka.

Because the apprenticeship of a new tense means a lot of effort and relies on the full assimilation of all the previous tenses, I think it's important not to put too much pressure on you by giving you sentences to translate from English into Bulgarian this time!

До скоро!